Debunk Sprouting Myths

by Leslie Moran

Editor’s Note: It’s a fact that Slimy Crop is a diagnosable condition your avian vet can help you resolve if you have failed to sprout properly. Let’s start a discussion of not only good sprouting habits, but also which seeds—not necessarily beans—are best for sprouting by reading Moran’s good information here first, and then sharing a logical and professional discussion afterward. It will be great to share knowledge with the group!

sprouting sprouts parrot magazine
Sprouts with tails; photo courtesy Leslie Moran

A bird owner named Marilyn said her avian veterinarian told her to never feed sprouts to any parrot. “She hates them because she has treated so many birds who got bacterial infections from eating sprouts,” Marilyn shared. This is only one of the sweeping generalizations commonly made about feeding sprouts to parrots.

When taking a poll of why people are feeding sprouts to their birds each of these avian caretakers expressed an understanding of the relationship between the food and health. People have told me they want to feed their birds healthier, more nutritious foods because they want them to be healthier and happier birds with beautiful feathers.

To discuss this topic let’s first dispel two common myths and explain the benefits sprouts offer to a bird’s diet and overall health.

False: “It’s dangerous to feed sprouts to parrots because the birds will get bacterial and fungal infections from them.”

True: There can be dangers associated with low quality, poorly formulated sprouting blends that have been improperly grown. Those dangers can include birds getting bacterial or fungal infections. To avoid this common pitfall and have your birds be able to safely receive the nutritional benefits of sprouts you must be able to recognize the components of a quality sprouting blend. The best sprouting blend for your birds is one that is certified organic, has been formulated with a compatible germination and growth rate, and provides complete protein. Let’s look at these three components.

I recommend selecting certified organic foods for birds; such foods contain more nutrition and are grown in a manner that supports life on this earth while being free of the harmful pesticides, fungicides and nitrogen fertilizers that pollute our planet. The report, Pesticides and Human Health, by the Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine (PCRM) documents these chemicals as causing myriad health problems and diseases. Certified organic bird foods can be made from human-grade quality ingredients; look for this on the label.

For germination, timing is critical. When you plant a garden, do each of the different plants germinate and grow at the same rate? Of course not. Each seed species requires a slightly different set of conditions that causes it to germinate and burst forth growing into a flowering plant.

When sprouting for your birds you’ll want to use a sprouting blend that has been formulated so it has a compatible germination and growth rate. This ensures your sprouts can safely grow for two to three days to reach optimum nutrition levels.

If you see a sprouting blend composed of mainly seeds and grains, such as millet, niger (nyjer), flax, wheat, barley, sunflower and safflower seeds, be forewarned. These types of blends often instruct you to soak and then feed them. In my experience these directions are given because these blends will not grow for two to three days to reach optimum nutrition levels. Commonly, this is the case because the ingredients have such diverse growing needs they quickly become a dangerous moldy mess.

Even blends that add a token garbanzo bean (chick pea) or a few lentils cannot be trusted to have compatible germination and growth rates. To get around these dangers, some people feed individual sprouted foods or make their own blends. These solutions eliminate the concerns of bacteria and mold developing from incompatible germination and growth rates; however, they fall short in providing adequate, wholesome avian nutrition because they lack complete protein.

Proteins are essential to life. Every living organism is composed of protein. Proteins are the primary building blocks for muscles, blood, skin, feathers, nails and vital internal organs. They are also essential for proper growth and development, and they fuel the body’s ability to form and regulate hormones, enzymes and antibodies. Proteins are responsible for every life-sustaining biochemical process in the body. However, too much protein from the wrong sources can cause problems.

In the published paper, “Estimated nutrient content of diets commonly fed to pet birds,” by L. Hess, DVM, G. Mauldin, DVM, MS, and K Rosenthal, DVM, MSc, the authors reported that 80 percent of the birds in the study consumed less crude protein than recommended for basic body maintenance. With protein being vital for the good health of our birds, concerned caretakers must start feeding plant-based foods that provide complete protein.

False: “…soaked seeds are more nutritious than sprouted seeds.”

True: There is no health or nutritional benefit from feeding soaked seeds or other foods intended for sprouting in non-sprouted form. Scientific documentation clearly shows that feeding soaked seed is nutritionally inferior to feeding sprouts that have been grown for several days. In my work I have witnessed that feeding soaked seeds produces the same results as feeding dry seeds. I teach my clients to wean their birds off all dry seeds, or to limit them to less than 5 percent of all foods fed.

Let’s explore this myth by describing the differences among soaking, germination, and sprouting.

  • Soaking is the process of putting any sproutable food—seeds, grains, legumes or nuts—in water for a period of time. When a seed is soaked it absorbs water. This triggers biochemical reactions inside the seed and germination begins.
  • Germination is the process through which a plant begins its growth and development from a seed. During this phase biochemical reactions inside the seed are just beginning.
  • Sprouting occurs after the seed is soaked, has begun to germinate and is allowed to grow. Sprouting is the process of cultivating a garden in a jar, or other sprouting container, over a period of several days.

The best way to ensure your birds receive advanced avian nutrition from the sprouts you are feeding them is to get a blend that will grow for two to three days. Because soaking and germination begins the process, sprouting—growing the food for a period of days—is where we see nutrition levels reach their peak.

Value the Nutrition

If there was ever an avian superfood, properly grown sprouts are it. Soaking and germination initiates the process where life-enhancing biochemical changes occur to a sprout while it grows.

According to Brian Clement, Ph.D., LNC, in the book Living Foods for Optimum Health, germination results when seeds, grains, legumes and nuts are soaked in water. Water removes certain metabolic inhibitors that protect the seed from bacterial growth while also preserving it during its dormant state. During germination the seed springs into life, increasing its nutritional value and digestibility.

In the landmark study “Nutritional improvement of cereals by sprouting,” J. Chavan and S.S. Kadam discovered, “Sprouting grains causes increased activities of hydrolytic enzymes, improvements in the contents of total proteins, fat, certain essential amino acids, total sugars, B-complex vitamins, and a decrease in dry matter, starch and anti-nutrients. Improvements in amino acid composition, B-complex vitamins, sugars, protein and starch digestibility, and decrease in phytates and protease inhibitors are the metabolic effects of the sprouting process.”

During the sprouting process protein levels increase over growing time. Vitamins are created and levels multiply with growth.

According to Isabel Shipard in the book How Can I Grow and Use Sprouts as Living Food?, “Vitamins, by nature, are very perishable. The fresher foods are when eaten, the higher the vitamin content. The vitamin content of some sproutable foods can increase by up to 20 times their original value after several days of sprouting. When mung bean sprouts are compared to the dry legumes, the sprouts have B vitamin increases, of — B1(thiamine) up 285%, B2 (riboflavin) up 515%, and B3 (niacin) up 256%. When compared with mature vegetable plants, sprouts can yield vitamin contents 30 times higher than vegetables.”

When barley was soaked, germinated and allowed to grow, the longer the grain grew, the higher the vitamin levels. Certain vitamins such as alpha-tocopherol (Vitamin-E) and beta-carotene (Vitamin-A precursor) are produced during the growth process. See Chart.

Vitamin C is nearly nonexistent in dry grains. In P.L. Finney’s study vitamin C levels in sprouted foods, with three to five days of growth, ranged between 9 mg and 326 mg of vitamin C per 100 grams of sprouts, depending upon the food being sprouted.

These studies provide the necessary evidence that sprouts are more nutritious than soaked seeds.

Anecdotally, since birds joined my family in 1997, I have been using my background in holistic nutrition, which began in the 1970s, to establish the best way to use food as medicine for them. My life’s work has led me to make some life-affirming decisions about what makes up proper nutrition for parrots and finches. In my experience a properly formulated, certified organic sprouting blend that contains complete protein and can be grown for two to three days is the ideal foundational food for these birds.

I’ve poured over sprouting data accumulated by the scientific research community spanning the past four decades and the researchers have reached a conclusion: The consensus across the board is that foods that are soaked, germinated and allowed to grow for a period of time become more nutrient-dense the longer they grow. And, we’re seeing positive clinical results; health improves in parrots and finches following my feeding guidelines.

Avian malnutrition is a vital topic for everyone who owns and cares for birds. It’s essential that accurate and responsible information be presented on all aspects of balanced and wholesome avian nutrition.

Sprout a PDD Discussion

Due to the superior nutritional content of a sprouting blend that meets the criteria discussed in this article, I believe this food is ideal for birds that have been diagnosed with Proventricular Dilitation Disease (PDD). Properly grown sprouts provide an easily digested form of protein because the amino acids are broken down into their key components making them easier to digest. All minerals present become chelated making them easier to assimilate. Sprouts contain the highest amounts of life-giving enzymes, more than any other fresh food, are rich in antioxidants and contain something no other food has—life force energy. Sprouts are alive up until the moment they are eaten. Other fresh foods stop being alive the moment they are harvested.

Research has linked under-nutrition and malnutrition to compromised immune systems. A poor functioning immune system is at the root of birds contracting illness from disease-causing pathogens. The best way to strengthen and build a healthy and proper functioning immune system is through the foods that are fed to and eaten by our birds.

Parrot Magazine Leslie Moran
Author Leslie Moran

Leslie Moran’s passion is using food as medicine for creating health and wellness in parrots. Moran shares her knowledge and newsworthy results in using food, nutrition and holistic healthcare for maintaining or restoring avian health and wellness. Her book The Compete Guide to Successful Sprouting for Parrots provides insight into the essential elements of her avian nutrition plan. Moran writes, teaches and provides consultations from her facility in Northern Nevada.

sprouting parrots
From left to right, a rice, buckwheat, wheat, adzuki bean, mung bean and lentil sprout at three days of growth; photo courtesy Leslie Moran

Balance Beta-carotene for Your Bird

by Leslie Moran

Beta-carotene, an important antioxidant, belongs to a class of phytochemicals called carotenoids. They are fat soluble pigments found in yellow, red, green and orange vegetables and fruits. This family of antioxidants also includes alpha-carotene, lycopene, lutein and zeaxanthin.

There are more than 500 different carotenoids in nature. Fifty of these, including beta-carotene, can be converted to vitamin A in a healthy liver.  Because of this, beta-carotene is considered a provitamin.  The body converts beta-carotene into vitamin A as needed, with any left over beta-carotene then acting as an antioxidant.

Antioxidants, also called free-radical scavengers, are the only way the body can successfully manage free-radicals. Numerous diseases, the effects of pollution, degenerative conditions and even the aging process itself has been attributed to free-radical damage. A free radical is a highly reactive molecule that can bind to and destroy other molecules. Also known as oxidative damage, free radical damage can irreversibly impair body cells and physiological processes.

In its role against free radicals, beta-carotene has been identified as being able to break down the chain reactions of these highly charged free radical molecules. When this occurs, this potent antioxidant prevents cholesterol oxidization and protects DNA from the harmful effects of oxidization. Beta-carotene has been seen to disable reactive oxygen species molecules caused from exposure to sunlight and air pollution, this helps prevent damage to eyes, lungs, and skin.

For these reasons, beta-carotene has become known for promoting eye health, good vision, helps postpone the effects of aging, helps prevent cancer, heart disease, heart attack, strokes and arteriosclerosis.

Any thorough discussion of this nutrient must clarify the relationship between beta-carotene and vitamin A.  Many articles and nutrition data sources use the term beta-carotene and vitamin A interchangeably. This gives the impression that they are the same nutrient, when in reality they are not.

As you learned above, beta-carotene is an antioxidant and is the precursor to vitamin A.  The nutrient vitamin A is also called rentinol. It is a fat soluble vitamin that is found in animal foods: whole eggs, liver, fatty fish, and cod liver oil.

When discussing beta-carotene and rentinol vitamin A you may see the letters: RE (rentinol equivalent). Over the past ten years research has been done showing that the body’s ability to convert beta-carotene to vitamin A rentinol will vary between individuals.  And when beta-carotene comes from common food sources only one twelfth of it can be converted to vitamin A. However, if the  beta-carotene has been dissolved in oil half of it can be converted.

Rentinol vitamin A is one of the few nutrients where minimum daily requirements for birds have been set by the American Association of Feed Control Officials (AAFCO).  People with diabetes and hypothyroidism (under active thyroid gland) cannot convert beta-carotene into vitamin A. Although avian veterinarians have not documented similar findings in parrots, if your bird is ever diagnosed with either of these conditions check to ensure that they have an adequate intake of vitamin A rentinol in their diet.  Although vitamin A has been identified as an essential avian nutrient, because it is a fat soluble vitamin, hypervitaminosis A (an overdose of vitamin A) can and has occurred in parrots.

For our birds to be healthy they must consume hundreds of nutrients everyday.  Nutritional research from the University of Maryland Medical center has shown that it’s best to get the full benefits of beta-carotene from foods sources, not nutritional supplements.  Their research shows that getting more antioxidants through diet helps boost the immune system, protects against free radical damage, and may lower the risk of two types of chronic illness- heart disease and cancer.

Foods rich in beta-carotene include apricots, beet greens, broccoli, cantaloupe, watermelon, carrots, collards, dandelion and mustard greens, kale, papayas, peaches, pumpkin, red peppers, spinach, sweet potatoes, Swiss chard, turnip greens, yellow squash and an assortment of select sprouts.

Leslie Moran uses food as medicine for creating health and wellness in parrots. Moran’s book, The Complete Guide to Successful Sprouting for Parrots, provides insight into the essential elements of her avian nutritional plan. She writes, teaches and provides consultations from her facility in Northern Nevada.