Here’s How to Feed the Eclectus Parrot in Human Care

(from Q2 2017 issue of In Your Flock pet bird magazine)

With Dr. Rob Marshall

Owners of Eclectus parrots (Eclectus roratus) know these precious birds have different dietary needs than have African greys (Psittacus erithacus), cockatoos (Cacatuidae), conures (Aratinga/Pyrrhura) or other parrots. One of the well-known reasons for the specialized diet conversation is the “different” gastro-intestinal system Eclectus parrots have when compared to other psittacines. Rob Marshall B.V.Sc., M.A.C.V.Sc. (Avian Health) at Carlingford Animal Hospital in New South Wales, Australia, shared the key features of Eclectus digestion:

Eclectus parrot pet bird magazine
Rocco Jr is a two-year-old Eclectus. His meals consist of 80 percent fresh vegetables and fruit, and 20 percent mix of high quality pellets, seed mix and nut treats. The chopped mix his owner, Sarah Juarez, has made for him here includes apples, pears, blueberries, spinach, kale, grapes, strawberries, sweet peppers, Serrano peppers, home grown sprouts, mellon, chia, hulled hemp, bee pollen granules, and Volkman Eclectus mix. Photo courtesy Sarah Juarez
  • a large crop size
  • a wide thoracic esophagus
  • a highly elastic and spacious proventriculus, which allows food much time to linger in it
  • short food-passage time in the gizzard
  • rapid movement of food through the small intestine after leaving the gizzard, and
  • highly regulated crop emptying.

Gastric function is key to healthy digestion in these parrots, so we’ll take a look at the physical and chemical disintegration of food as it goes through the three stages of protein digestion. This will show the science behind the field observations supporting Marshall’s recommendations for feeding the Eclectus in human care.

As Branson Ritchie, DVM, PhD, Dipl ABVP, Dipl ECAMS, professor at UGA® College of Veterinary Medicine, Georgia, shared with the audience at Ziggy’s Haven Bird Sanctuary, Inverness, Florida, April 2, 2017, observing the wild population of a given parrot species offers the perfect clues for feeding that species in human care. “The best thing you can do for your bird is look at where it occurs naturally, and supplement its high-quality food with foods from that habitat,” Ritchie counseled us.

Marshall’s research of wild Eclectus offers valuable observations of behavior that not only reveal tips for what to feed the Eclectus in human care, the observations also reveal tips for how to offer these foods. It all makes even more sense when we look inside the bird.

Inside the Ekkie

First, Marshall points out, food goes through the cephalic phase. As food enters the proventriculus from the crop, the proventriculus fills with peptic enzymes to help break down protein molecules before sending food to the gizzard. One of Marshall’s presentations shows Pepsin and food filling the proventriculus together.

Second, Marshall points out, food goes through the gastric phase. As food enters the ventriculus—also called the gizzard or hind stomach—the ventriculus fills with hydrochloric acid (HCL) to denature the protein bonds in the food.

One of the intriguing habits Marshall and his colleagues witnessed in the field, and something Eclectus parrot owners have commented on, is the manner in which these parrots consume seeds. The astute owner will notice the Eclectus spending considerable time munching and crunching seeds and arils before consuming them.

Marshall explained to In Your Flock magazine readers what we’re seeing: “They break the seed into smaller pieces, better exposing them to stomach acids, which reduces the workload of the gizzard. The gizzard in Eclectus is prone to overload because it has evolved on a soft food wild diet of fruit pulp.”

Third, food goes through the intestinal phase. Fast transit time and advanced protein digestion indicate a healthy digestive system. Marshall pointed out: “In clinical practice, functional digestive problems are encountered far more frequently in Eclectus than other parrot species.”

watery droppings Eclectus parrot
This picture shows watery droppings from a female Eclectus. Photo courtesy Editor Sandy Lender

Eclectus parrot owners can tell their birds may be experiencing digestive problems when they see the typical health clues. Look for changes in droppings and dropping consistency. If the first morning dropping has bubbles and/or extra water, it’s time to make a veterinary appointment. Marshall states that feather stress bars, feather discoloration and feather loss are signs of chronic digestive dysfunction. If your Eclectus parrot is plucking and barbering his or her feathers, don’t assume the problem is mere stress or boredom. Look at digestive health. Take your bird to the vet and discuss real Eclectus dietary needs.

“Ninety-five percent of feather destruction behaviors in Eclectus have a physical base,” Marshall shared with In Your Flock. “Digestion dysfunction is the most common cause of feather destruction. This must be identified and resolved in the early stages before the destructive actions become habituated. They become habituated largely because the owners tell the birds to stop picking when they see the self-destruct, which causes an attention-seeking behavioral problem. Habituation occurs in birds that are sedentary and lack exercise so their focus is on feather picking, which becomes a habit. Therefore, the feather destruction problem has physical and behavioral aspects. Even so, the feather destruction behavior will persist if the underlying physical cause is not attended to. These behaviors are definitely not related to boredom or misdirected foraging behavior.”

Let’s look to the field research that both Ritchie and Marshall put a high value on to see naturally occurring foraging behavior, and to learn more about the wild population’s dietary practices.

Wild Ekkie Life

Eclectus Parrot Female
Bobo’s age is unknown, but her recent history is complex. She has recently discovered the tastiness of a chopped vegetable mix with fruit diced on top. She also enjoys pesticide-free hibiscus flowers. Photo courtesy Sandy Lender

The family tree is the focal point of Eclectus life with the female showing an urgent need to protect the nest. She will stay at the nest site while a group of males goes out to forage twice a day, and return with food for her. While studying Eclectus in the wild, Marshall and colleagues investigated the wild diet and feeding habits of a family group of three males and one female of the Australian subspecies (E. roratus macgillivray) found in the lowland rainforests of Iron Range on Cape York Peninsular, Australia.

They observed the three males leave the family’s Kajoolaboo tree (Tetrameles nudiflora) together at first light to forage along the Claudie River. One broke away from the mini group to forage near the shoreline while the other two flew ahead. All three returned within a reasonable timespan of one another to the family tree. In the afternoon, all three went foraging together again. The next morning, at first light, they were off again, soaring into the forest canopy to find breakfast.

Marshall states this wild feeding behavior is highly regular, intermittent and offers enhanced protein digestion for the Eclectus parrot’s unique digestive system. For healthy digestion, these birds in human care must follow a similar morning and afternoon mealtime routine.

He told In Your Flock: “In the wild, Eclectus will fill their crops with food over a period of an hour or so in the morning. They eat on an empty stomach. The food eaten during this time will fill up the stomach and stretch it to capacity, which is critical to the gastric secretion of Hydrochloric acid and pepsin. In the evening, the crop and stomach have emptied of food and the same process of digestion follows according to the principles of gastric secretion. Ultimately, this produces a fast transit time of food through the gut, which underpins their healthy digestive function.”

Where owners often go wrong, Marshall pointed out, is in feeding foods that “reduce the rate of food passage through the gut, which predisposes Eclectus to many complicated digestion disorders.”

parrot magazine definitions

“In our study, Eclectus parrots were seen eating succulent pulp from the fruit of Salacia chinensis and Leea indica. The textural qualities, water and nutrient content of these fruits are typical of canopy foods eaten by Eclectus parrots, which make up the bulk of their natural diet.” (See Sidebar “Wild Diet” at the end of this article.)

In our homes, Marshall pointed out, “Eclectus parrots are commonly fed according to granivory, which explains their high incidence of diet-induced digestive problems. Such problems are averted and remedied by adopting feeding schedules that better suit a digestion model weighted towards frugivory.”

Marshall told In Your Flock readers: “Cultivated fruits lack the nutritional richness of rainforest fruits. Therefore, we move towards cooked vegetables as a source of nutrients, and these are cooked to provide the functional requirements for healthy digestion in Eclectus. The foundation vegetables for Eclectus are cooked butternut pumpkin (squash), sweet potato, boiled rice and cooked legumes. On top of these we place fleshy commercially grown papaya, mango, passionfruit, pomegranate, kiwi fruit and dragonfruit. But these are sources of vitamins and microminerals rather than major nutrients and functional foods.

“In addition, you can add green beans, kale, carrot, and corn as foraging foods.”

 

——WILD DIET——

During Dr. Rob Marshall’s observations of the Eclectus family in September through November 2015, he and colleagues started with an unpublished list of 17 fruits that researcher Sarah Legge at Iron Range National Park on Cape York, Australia, had observed in the park between December 1996 and November 2003. During the study, Marshall and colleagues confirmed the use of 15 of those original 17 fruits, plus 13 plant parts that could be added to the list. In a paper presented to the Association of Avian Veterinarians, Marshall lists the following confirmed Eclectus foods:

Fruits with soft, fleshy skin

Canarium spp.

Black Sassafrass (Cinnamonum olivieri)

Cissus pentaclada

Cissus repens

Ficus spp.

Leea indica

Mackinlaya confuse

Acid Drop (Melodorum leichhardtii)

Lime berry (Micromelum minutum)

Solitaire Palm (Ptychosperma elegans)

Lolly Vine (Salacia chinensis)

Damson Plum (Terminalia sericocarpa)

Watery Rose-apple (Syzygium aqueum)

Lilly Pilly (Syzigium luehmannii)

Lady Apple (Syzygium suborbiculare)

 

Fruits that contain seeds surrounded by aril

Golden Guinea tree (Dillenia alata)

Tuckeroo (Cupaniopsis anacardioides)

Buttonwoods (Glochidion spp.)

Fire Vine (Tetracera nordtiana)

Brittlewood (Claoxylon spp.)

Northern Tamarind (Diploglottis diphyllosteia)

 

Fruits containing edible seeds

Black wattle (Acacia meloanoxylon)

Pink Ash (Alphitonia petrei)

White Ash (Alphitonia whitei)

Red Ash (Alphitonia excelsa)

Hopbush (Dodonea lanceolata var. subsessifolia)

Grewia (Grewia papuana)

Native Crepe Myrtle (Lagerstomera archeriana)

Blush Macaranga (Macaranga tanarius)

Macaranga (Macaranga involcrata)

Celerywood (Polyscias elegans)

Cape Tamarind (Toechima daemelianum)

 

The Plucking Series — Part 6

Winston’s Awesome Blood

By Sandy Lender

boing eclectus In Your Flock parrot magazine
Winston hangs out on one of the boings at In Your Flock magazine headquarters at the beginning of the fifth week of our case study.

Thursday of last week, Winston returned to the vet to “try again” for a blood draw to do a complete blood count (CBC). In great news, he handled the visit very well. The vet was able to draw blood more easily than four weeks ago. Winston’s skin is nicely pink again. His body condition has improved. Where the vet considered him a 6.5 out of 9 on a body condition score four weeks ago, he’s closer to a healthy 5 now.

Winston’s vet called Monday morning to report on what the CBC revealed. More great news! White cell count is normal. Platelet count is normal. No parasitic indications. No cell tearing. Every indication is that Winston is “remarkably healthy.”

Factor in the nice-n-easy weight loss while he’s increasing his movement, and we’re on the right track.

Eclectus at In Your Flock magazine
Bobo is one of Winston’s friends here at In Your Flock headquarters. She takes a turn climbing on the playgym here.

Getting Winston’s weight under control was an extra facet of this case study. Our goal is to help him stop the feather-destructive behavior. Sunday morning’s weigh-in showed him at 508 to 509 grams, so he held steady for the week.

At this time, he’s still receiving Bird Hemp by Hemp Well on his food once a day, and I’m not seeing a significant change in his plucking habit yet. This is only the fifth week using the hemp oil. I’m relieved to see no increase in plucking as his food portions have been “messed with.” But we’ll need to watch and wait and see how his exercise, portion control, Bird Hemp regimen, and tender loving care carry him through the spring and into the summer. We’ll check back in on Winston in a few weeks.

The Plucking Series — Part 5

Winston’s Weight

By Sandy Lender

Eclectus feather plucking belly comparison
Here we can see Winston’s progress leaving some feathers in place from week 1 to the end of week 4/beginning of week 5.

To begin this week, Winston threw me for a loop with an odd weigh-in on Sunday. I think it was an anomaly with the scale. Monday brought a more reasonable weight of 507 grams. This means Winston has lost 11 grams since his vet appointment a few weeks ago, and that’s great. In other good news, he has more feathers that he’s leaving alone. I can see by the feathers on the tray liner each morning that he hasn’t stopped pulling feathers altogether, but he’s leaving more “in” his body. He has a follow-up with his vet this week to get the blood draw for his CBC that they were unable to perform last time.

What other feather-growth or feather-destructive experiences are going on out there?

The Plucking Series — Part 4

Here’s What We’re Doing for Winston

By Sandy Lender

Eclectus feather plucking breakfast week 4
Winston’s Week 4 breakfast example shows one dish of fresh veggies and two dishes of dry pellets that get spread around different locations in his cage.

Before we dive into this week’s update on Winston the Eclectus, I want to invite readers to share in the comments below their experiences with their feather-plucking birds. The point of this case study is to share information and educate one another on practices that have helped our birds. In the second post of this case study, titled “What Winston and I Have Tried So Far,” I listed the host of methods we’ve tried to date to interrupt his feather destructive habit. At that time, I began a new method.

Winston has just begun Week 4 of taking a new product called Bird Hemp by Hemp Well, Auburn Hills, Michigan. It is designed to calm his desire to munch on his feathers or skin. During Global Pet Expo (GPE) in Orlando in 2017, there were a handful of vendors promoting hemp-related products to help calm pets and alleviate anxiety. At GPE this year, you couldn’t turn around without seeing a banner or flyer for a company promoting a help-related product. They were everywhere. Those products were designed to calm dogs and cats. To use the products with birds, you have to scale down doses and do funky math. I’m not good with funky math. Luckily, the folks at Hemp Well have already scaled one of their products (with a second coming online soon) for pet birds.

I’m including information about the endocannabinoid system (ECS) in the Q2 issue of In Your Flock, along with information on what does and does not cause a psychoactive effect in a pet. Rest assured, I’m not offering Winston a magic carpet ride. What I’m giving him is a fighting chance to calm anxiety if anxiety is the reason he continues this plucking habit. His veterinarian has read the information and is cool with watching these results as well.

As I shared in Post 3, “What’s Inside Winston,” the poor guy has some fat to lose. I’ve got him exercising and moving around more than usual on a daily basis. Winston Exercising Week4 He’s gone from 518 grams to 514 grams now, which is the right direction. A friend who came over Saturday commented that he has more green feathers on his chest than the last time she saw him. I’m not counting feathers, but I am noticing fewer feathers on the bottom of the cage during “poop tray liner change” each morning. That’s also the right direction.

Eclectus feather plucking belly comparison
Winston has lost 4 grams in four weeks, and seems to have at least slowed the feather destructive activity.

I’d like to hear/read what other bird owners have tried successfully, and what you have tried without success. You can share openly in the comments below, or you can contact me privately at publisher at inyourflock dot com to share ideas and methods.

The Plucking Series — Part 3

What’s Inside Winston

Winston climbs
Winston climbs downward. There are treats in the foraging cups behind him and in the coconut hut he’s headed toward. Food is a motivator for movement.

For the third week of Winston’s case study, we’ll begin with the startling results of his blood work. His veterinarian had difficulty getting a good amount of blood for all of his well-bird workups when he had his checkup April 5. His skin was a bit yellow and the veins somewhat hidden. This was alarming in itself. Winston typically has pink skin on his adorable belly, which is the only “skin” I regularly move fluffy feathers to look at. Even his belly skin had a bit of a yellow “tint” to it that morning, which took me completely by surprise. The vet calmed me down…

His blood work came back with no elevated markers for liver problems, thank goodness! But Mr. Winston is chubby. I am embarrassed by the fatness that has crept into his body while under my watch. He had dropped 56 grams in the 15 months since his last well-bird checkup, but he still weighs 518 grams. His blood sugar level is too high—349 when a normal range for parrots is between 145 and 245, with eclectus typically hanging around the low end of that range. His protein level is a bit low—total protein is 4.1 g/dL and albumin level is 1.9 g/dL.

Needless to say, Winston is on a new exercise regimen where I encourage him to walk around the house, climb over little obstacles I pile on the floor for him, and climb along the jungle gym that hangs from the dining room ceiling. He has no qualms about digging through foraging systems for treats, so the foraging systems are part of the jungle gym he must traverse.

I’m also increasing his bath times. He loves to bathe, and makes quite a production out of dipping, splashing, flapping, and then climbing to a perch to rest before returning to the bath bowl to dip, splash, and flap some more. A good bath for Winston can last half an hour. That’s good exercise for a perch potato.

So far, Winston has gained 2 grams.

This means we have more work to do to get the fat deposits away.

We will be going back to the vet for another blood panel in a few months.

For now, the increased interactions during exercise time and extra bath times are offering a different/new pattern of enrichment. We’ll see if this increase in activity helps distract him from feather-plucking.

Eclectus feather plucking fruit with breakfast
Winston’s breakfast during week three included a wee bit of fruit one morning. Notice the world’s smallest bite of banana amid about half a tablespoon of pomegranate arils, a yellow sweet pepper, some yellow summer squash, a bite of turnip, and some dehydrated peas. In the dry-food dish, Winston’s preferred ZuPreem natural pellets, Pretty Bird natural gold pellets, dehydrated peas, about a quarter of an avicake and one nutriberry round out the morning’s offerings.

For his dietary needs, I’ve lessened the amount of pellets (not by much) offered each day. I’ve also added some beans and soaked foods into the rotation to help increase his healthy protein intake. For example, one morning I offered a heaping tablespoon of Volkman’s Featherglow Soak & Simmer mix with beans and lentils. One morning I offered a tablespoon of Worldly Cuisines African Sunset with quinoa. This was in addition to his tablespoon of chopped veggie mix or cut up peppers, etc. I keep a nice variety in the dishes for him so there’s plenty of interest, plenty of choice. My next step, courtesy of my friend CB Buckley, is to place portions of Winston’s breakfast in different areas of his cage so he must move around and stretch to get his food. I’ll report back on his opinion of that next week when I share the anti-anxiety remedy I’ve instituted as well.

Full Disclosure: I haven’t gotten the permission of Winston’s vet to share names/info yet, so I don’t want to blast the clinic’s information all over the Internet until I have clearance to do so.

The Plucking Series—Part 2

What Winston and I Have Tried So Far

parrot pet bird magazine jungle gym
During the second week of our case study, Winston climbed around on the rope perches and parrot jungle gym at In Your Flock pet bird magazine headquarters.

Since Winston came to live with me February/March 2013, I’ve had four veterinarians attempt to get to the root of his feather-plucking habit. Next week, we’ll examine his current blood work from this year’s annual well-bird check-up, but let’s start with history before we move to the future.

Winston has a single owner now. Me. This has been his stability since 2013. Full Disclosure: I had a partner who offered a dangerous situation for a short while, but I resolved that.

Winston has a large cage (24 inches deep by 31 inches wide by 48 inches tall at its highest/curved point) where he can stretch his wings without touching the sides of the cage. He climbs around in it on a variety of perches and branches to shred a variety of toys. He has access to play stands (table-top and stand-alone) when he’s out of the cage, and he uses me as a tree. He is not shy about walking across the center of the living room floor and then climbing up the side of the couch and up the side of me to sit on me while I type. Recently, I have installed rope perches and several swings from the dining room ceiling, and he enjoys climbing around on those. This bird gets some exercise, but I’ll be increasing that. As I increase his activity level, I’ll document what “we” are doing for your edification.

bird breakfast Eclectus pepper zupreem peas
Here’s an example of Winston’s typical breakfast. On the left, we have ZuPreem natural pellets and Pretty Bird natural gold pellets with some dehydrated peas and three nutriberries (one was broken/partial). On the right, we have a tablespoon of beta-carotene-rich chopped veggies and one orange sweet pepper with its seeds. The chopped veggies are wet (of course) so they are easy to mix-and-hide Winston’s calming medicine in.

His current diet is this:

Each morning, he gets one dish of ZuPreem natural pellets with several Lafeber’s Nutri-berries and either a shelled almond or a pistachio (in shell), and one dish with a heaping tablespoon of chopped veggies, which may include a slice of banana, a sweet pepper (yellow or orange—he doesn’t care for the red ones), or some other fresh item that’s in season. The dish of veggies/fresh food is removed after one or two hours, depending on my schedule.

Each afternoon/evening, he gets some fruit and/or a few Nutri-berries and/or a Caitec baked birdie munchie, etc. Basically, the offering late in the day is more “treat time,” but I try to stay aware of his fiber needs.

First Thing: reduce the colorful stuff

When Winston came to me, his diet consisted of Pretty Bird Eclectus blend and some other refined pellets that had artificial colors. While the Pretty Bird food made his breath smell lovely and wonderful, I was advised by his vet to remove artificial colors from the eclectus diet. (His breath is still wonderful, musky, and hyperventilation-worthy.)

Second Thing: don’t experiment with pollen

At one point, I purchased a tea blend from a company with a name that sounds like a retirement community. Winston’s reaction to the blend was a slow increase in scratching and plucking. I went through a number of steps to isolate what he was reacting to: chamomile. Apparently, Winston is allergic to chamomile, which some birds find calming.

Eclectus feather plucking exercise treats parrot
Winston spent some time working for his treats during the second week of our case study.

Third Thing: keep the scary collar away

In the five+ years that Winston has lived with me, he has bitten me once. The bite was entirely my fault; I was assisting a friend in putting a leathery collar around his neck (we were actually in the process of removing it because he had stumbled and fallen trying to walk with the thing on) and he clamped down on the only solid thing in front of his face. My thumb. When he realized he had my thumb, he let go. I’ve never tried to put a collar on him since, and I truly hope I never have to again. He seemed so distressed that I feared his frightened heart rate was going to hurt him.

Fourth Thing: quit the ekkie seeds

During Winston’s well-bird check-up Dec. 15, 2016, the veterinarian shared concern about the Eclectus-blend of seeds that I included in his breakfast dish each day. She stated, outright, that seeds are fattening and won’t give him the nutrients he needs. On that day, Winston weighed 574 grams. (He now weighs 518 grams.)

Fifth Thing: calm the waters

Also during Winston’s well-bird check-up at the end of 2016, the veterinarian decided I should put him on an anti-anxiety medication via his water to see if this helped deter his plucking. She prescribed red raspberry extract, at 2 to 4 drops per 8 ounces of drinking water to be used in conjunction with HomeoPet Anxiety Drops, also at 2 to 4 drops per 8 ounces of drinking water. I’ve been putting that mix together in his water bottle for 15 months, but seeing no change in his plucking habit.

Sixth Thing: embark on 2018

Now it’s time to try something entirely new. Next week, we’ll look at Winston’s current blood work and discuss what his current vet thinks of my new idea.

The Plucking Series—Part 1

Winston’s Story

In Your Flock feather plucking Eclectus progress
Winston has no fear of new toys or new perches. He’s always up for new fun.

By Editor Sandy Lender

In late 2012, I lived in Southwest Florida and visited a pet store just a bit north of my home. That store had an adorable, partially plucked, male eclectus in the front area who would happily say “hello” when I walked in. He was not available for adoption because the store owner [we’ll call her Jane] had adopted him from a local veterinarian and wished to keep and love him. He’d been at the store for about a year as her friend.

When a life change took Jane to a new occupation in another part of the country, the eclectus stayed behind and needed a new “forever friend.” I’m a sucker; that friend was me.

Before Winston came home with me, we spent time together at the store to make sure it was a good match. The store’s new proprietor put me in touch with Winston’s former owner [a veterinarian we’ll call VT], who told me his tale.

As best we know, when Winston was probably two years old, he went on an adventure outside of his original owner’s home. The original owner put flyers up around her neighborhood with Winston’s description and her phone number. When VT found Winston on his adventure-in-the-hood, VT took him to work for a quick check-up and called his first mom.

His first mom refused him. She refused him saying her eclectus would react to her differently than Winston did.

In Your Flock feathers pluck Eclectus series
Winston takes time out of playing to preen. This is Day 1 of the new regimen we’ll be talking about in this series.

This horrifies me to this day.

So Winston lived with VT’s family for about 13 or so years. He enjoyed an outdoor aviary for part of that time. He had an African grey for a cage mate at one time and a female eclectus as a cage mate at another time. I don’t remember the sequence in which the following events happened, but Winston witnessed one of his cage mates being killed by a hawk and one of them being killed by a raccoon. It breaks my heart to know he had to live through such frightening things.

By 2012, circumstances in VT’s life made it necessary for Winston to find a new home. That’s when he went to Jane’s store where he could be seen as an adoptable bird. About a year later, he chose me to be his human servant.

Now it’s 2018. As best I know, I believe Winston is 19 years old. He has plucked his feathers since before he lived at the store in Southwest Florida, which means he has plucked for at least six years. It’s a fully formed habit. In this series, we’ll look at the efforts I’ve made to help him break the habit, we’ll look at his health records/blood work, and we’ll look at a new concept to try to help these chronic feather-pluckers.

 

Full disclosure: I was never told the name of Winston’s first/original owner who refused him that fateful day at the vet’s office. All names have been obscured in Winston’s story so no one will feel vilified. No one is “to blame” for pieces of Winston’s past. Each person has contributed to bringing him good things and to bringing him to a wonderfully spoiled life with me.